Tracking The Glories of the Past
Heralding The Dawn of a Future
Province Punjab has been distinguished in every era because of its prolific, fruitful, and fertile lands. Punjab civilization is one of the ancient civilizations. It is due to the amalgamation of local and global cultures. The Capital city of Punjab is Lahore.
History of Punjab Province
In primeval times, Punjab is termed “Sapat Sindhu” in the holy book of Arya’s “Rigveda”. Rigveda (sacred text) has some phrases from 2400 B.C. However, it is difficult to tell when Sapat Sindhu became a part of Rigveda. According to the Britannica encyclopedia, the famous tourist Ibn Battuta first used the term “Punjab” in his travelogue.
In the past, Punjab was called by different names. Some famous names were Punjab, Punj Do Aab, Punj Jinya Krishti, Punjnad, Whake, Gosh, Sapat Sindhu, and Hept Sindhu.
According to researchers, Punjab is Man’s first birthplace. They thought that it is the only place in Asia where about 60 million years old fossils were discovered. Punjab is the name of land irrigated by five rivers. It is a word in the Persian language that is a combination of “Punj” and “Aab”.
In the ancient ages, Punjab was the first battlefield for the invaders coming from the northwest passes. At those times, the defense system of Punjab was strong. The whole sub-continent was saved from foreign dominion. Arya faced a lot of opposition in Punjab. The war between Arya and the ten kings was fought near River Ravi in the Harappa surrounding.
The high-level civilization of Harappa is a manifestation of the existence of an excellent political system there.
In the koro Kheshter ground, a war was fought between Kors and Pandos. The states of king Poras and Maloha were prominent when the Great Alexander attacked this area. He fought with such courage, audacity, and fearlessness that it is engraved in the pages of history with indelible impressions.
Due to this militant quality of Punjabis, the sequence of Greek conquest was broken. The Great Alexander had to come back with a regret in his heart.
The historians have a conflict about the beginning of a historic era in Punjab.
It is assumed that it started after the arrival of Arya in this area (1600 B.C) and Rigveda. After that, Hakhamaneshi came into power. They invented coins. Their reign ended after the attack of the Greeks. Greeks promoted Buddhism. The Greeks’ government ended in just two years. After Alexander, Chander Gapat Moria ruled this area. Then, Bhakti overtook the subcontinent and established Taxila (Surkap).
Sakaya Shik (governed this area for 100 years), Parthi or Pehalwa (Gandhara Art initiated during this regime), Kishan (their era is the golden age of Buddhism), Sasani (their government lasted for forty years) Kedar Kishan (they came from Balkh) and Hun ( they ruled Punjab for two hundred years) are some important pages of Punjab’s deep-rooted history. Sanskrit was the official language. Hun was used to preaching to people. They built the largest temple in Multan. Kashmiri and then Hindu Shahi came into power. This sequence continued until the Arab influx.
Muhammad Bin Qasim occupied Sindh and after one year, Arabs conquered Multan. Thenceforth, Mehmood Ghaznavi subjugated Punjab and led the foundations of the First Islamic Government. Lahore was the province of Ghaznavi Sultanate. Sultans were also blessed with the Punjab reign.
The emperors changed over time. The Mughals era was a golden period for the sub-continent. They started a series of construction of grand buildings in the sub-continent, especially in Punjab.
Lal fort Delhi, Fateh Pur Sikri, Taj Mahal Agra, Taj Mahal, Shahjahan Mosque, renovation of Lahore fort, Sheesh Mahal, Moti Mosque, Shahi Mosque Lahore, Noor Jahan’s tomb, Shalimar Garden, Kamran Bara Dari, Jahangir’s tomb, Rohtas fort, GT road Peshawar to Kolkata, are the symbols of their keen interest in architect.
Sikhs took the advantage of Mughals’ weakness and conquered the various areas of Punjab. Shahi fort, Badshahi Mosque, Hazoori garden, and golden temple in Amar tassar are built by King Ranjeet Singh. At last, the Sikh era ended.
The British had a stronghold in India before the Sikh regime. However, it took one century to conquer Punjab. In 1849, Britishers subjugated Punjab with their planning. Their monarchy ended in 1857, after the freedom movement “Tehreek-e-Azadi”.
There was a time when the boundaries of Punjab (situated in the northwest of the sub-continent) were spreading from Sir Hind Shahreef to Khyber Pass and Kashmir to Karachi on the other side. Sometimes, the administration of Lahore was called Punjab province. The areas of D.G Khan, D.I. Khan, Peshawar, Banu, Kohat, Bahawalpur, Kangra, Kashmir, Hazara, Tibet, Ladakh, Jammu were included in the Punjab territory during the Sikh reign. British included Delhi, Hassar, and Ambala Division in Punjab.
In 1901, The Britishers separated the province KPK (North-West Frontier Province) from Punjab. In 1912, Delhi was declared a separate province.
Located at 40-27- and 34-1-degrees longitude and 10-69 to 20-75 degrees latitude, Punjab’s demarcated and undisputed boundaries after 14th August 1947 are as follows. In the north, the Himalayas range separates it from Tibet and Kashmir. KPK is situated in the northwest. The river Indus lies between KPK and Punjab. It has Balochistan in the west, Sindh in the south, and India (Hindustan) in the East.
Punjab’s total area is 205344 square kilometers. Its area is about 25.8 % of Pakistan’s total area. At the creation of Pakistan, it was the largest province of Pakistan in terms of population, and still, it is the largest province. Lahore is its capital.
In 1951, according to the first census, the total population of Punjab was 20541000. Nowadays, its population Is about 10 crores.
The mainland of Punjab is located at a greater distance from the poles and at a relatively short distance from the equator. Therefore, the duration of the winter season is less than the summer season. The southern areas are too hot. On the contrary to this, northern areas are cold. The weather is pleasant in February, March, and April. It is very hot from May to July. In some areas (Multan, Bahawalpur, Mianwali, and Bahawalnagar) the temperature goes beyond 48.
The rainy season starts at the end of July and goes till the mid of September. The winter season prevails from November to January. It is too cold in the northern areas of Punjab and the temperature drops below freezing.
Overall, it is agricultural land. A network of Canals is designed for irrigation and cultivation purposes. It is considered to be the best canal system in the World. The fertility and production of agricultural land depend on this Canal system.
Wind Up Lines
Province Punjab is a historic province. It plays a key role in the economy of the country. There are many historical cities in this province. Its capital Lahore is referred to as the cultural heart of Pakistan.