Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan in terms of area and the smallest province with respect to population. Quetta is the capital of Balochistan. It has a deep-rooted history.
History of Balochistan
The latest excavations of the archaeological sites revealed that the Civilization and Reich there are older than other provinces. The Balochistan archaeological novelties are more primeval than Mohen Jodaro and Harappa (the civilization of the Indus valley that is about 2500 to 3000 thousand years old). Before the Indus Valley communities, these Baloch communities were the first model of the Indo-Pak subcontinent civilizations. The primordial paginations of history told that Balochistan was under the Hakhamanishiya state.
The last Achaemenid king (330 B.C to 336 B.C) was murdered in the attack by the Great Alexander. When the Great Alexander returned to Greece after his expedition to northern India, he took the route of Bella and Makran. After his death, it remained under the control of Governor Seleucus. After his successors came under the control of the Ba’athists. It became a part of the Sasanian regime in the era of Nausherwan – e – Adil. (577- 529 A.D).
In 636 A.D, Sindhi Raja captured Makran. After that, the Roy family successors abducted most of the area in Northern Balochistan.
In 643 A.D, the Arabs conquered Makran and they continued to rule there till the 10th century A.D. Thenceforth, Al-Ghaznavi, and Al- Ghori governed it. The Khwarazm emperor Sultan Muhammad Khan took this area into his authority in 1219 A.D. In 1223 A.D. Tatars invaded this area and reached the seashore of Makran. In the 15th century A.D, Balochistan was under the influence of the Arghoon government.
The Arghoon government was a clean sweep by Babur. From 1556 A.D to 1595 A.D it was under the control of Alvi’s Family. In 1638 A.D, Iran took over it and it lasted until 1718 when the Ghilzais came to power. After gaining complete control over Eastern India, Sir Charles Napier in 1843, defeated the emperors of Sindh and included this area in British India. After six years, Sir Henry Laurance conquered Punjab. But it was a difficult task to take over the mountains and warriors’ tribes. Instead of using the authority and army personnel, they started a series of manipulations, intrigues, and conspiracies and tried to connect with the local flatterers, traitors, greedy and selfish chiefs. At last, on 31st May 1876, they declared their government in Balochistan on the basis of the Mustang contract.
Nevertheless, they were unable to completely influence the Baluch tribes. After 1918, they succeeded in establishing their government and asserting their power. Before the British reign, the borders of Balochistan were extended to Dera Ghazi in the east, to the south-west Hilmand river of Afghanistan in the north, Sestan and Karman’s east till port Abbas in the West, and to the Arabian Sea in the south.
They reduced the geographical area of Balochistan. In 1896, they determined the borders of Afghanistan and hand over the Baluch area of Setan to the port of Abbas to Iran. By making the Durand Line boundary between Afghanistan and India, they included the core Balochistan in Afghanistan. The core of Dera Ghazi Balochistan was involved in Punjab. Khan Garh and its surrounding areas became a part of Sindh and were given the name Jacob Abad. A state was formed named Kalat.
At the beginning of the 20th century, movements were started for freedom against the British. Before 1939, the Muslim League and Tehreek Pakistan were not so popular. Jamiat-e- Ulema Hind and the Indian National Congress party had more influence there.
In 1939, during the conference of Qila Saif Ullah, Muslim League was announced as a political party in Balochistan. Khan Kalat Mir Ahmad Yar Khan, Nawab Muhammad Khan Joghazi, Mir Jaffar Khan Jamali, and Qazi Muhammad Esa struggled a lot to declare Muslim League a political party in Balochistan.
When Quaid-e-Azam came to Balochistan in 1945, he was given two silver rods as a present. These silver rods weighed 5500 Tola (320754.84375 carats) and about 60 kg. At that time, Quaid-e-Azam appealed to the Indian Muslims to give silver coins. Khan of Kalat weighed Quaid-e-Azam and Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah in silver and gold. All this gold and silver was added to Muslim League Fund.
During the 1946 elections, the representative of the Muslim League Nawab Muhammad Khan Jogazi won the elections with a great majority.
By this time, the area of Balochistan is 347190 square kilometers which is about 43.3% of Pakistan’s land area. Iran and Afghanistan are situated in the west and northwest respectively. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa KPK, (formerly North-West Frontier Province) and Punjab are located on the North Border of Balochistan.
It has Sindh in the east and the Arabian Sea in the south. Quetta is the Capital of Balochistan. Quetta, Sibi, Kalat, Makran, Zhob, Loaralai, Khuzdar, Lasbela, Naseer Abad, and Kharan are considered as the big cities of Balochistan.
Balochistan mainly comprises Hilly areas. Mountains named Suleman, Barohi, Pib, Sayahan, Chaghi, and Tuba are included in the area of Balochistan. Some mountains pass has significant importance in history. Bolan pass, Mola pass, and Khojak pass are famous in Balochistan. Some area of Balochistan is situated on the Arabian seashore.
This coastal area is 471 miles long. The seaports of Mara, Jeuni, Pasni, Sonmiani, and Gwadar port are located here.
Balochistan is Famous for its delicious and good quality fruits. Fine quality grapes, apples, peach yellow plums(apricots), mulberry, pomegranates, melons, and watermelons are produced. While its mountains are full of coal, natural gas, chrome, gold, chromite, Antimony-containing stibnite, known as kohl or Surma, Sulfur, asbestos, marble, glass, and other minerals.
Quetta, Ziarat, Gwadar, Lasbella, and Makran Coastal Highway are famous areas for tourism.
Wind Up Lines
Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan in terms of area. It is famous for the production of fruits. It is a hilly area and the mountains are full of minerals. Besides this, it has historical places, breathtaking beaches, and beautiful orchards and forests.